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Oil and Natural Gas
The Current Status
  • The oil and gas industry has been instrumental in fuelling the rapid growth of the Indian economy. The petroleum and natural gas sector which includes transportation, refining and marketing of petroleum products and gas constitutes over 15 per cent of the India's GDP.
  • Petroleum exports have also emerged as the single largest foreign exchange earner, accounting for 17.24 per cent of the total exports in 2007-08. Growth continued in 2008-09 with the export of petroleum products touching US$ 23.63 billion during April-December 2008.
  • India's Energy per capita consumption one of the lowest in the world. India's per capita TPES consumption was 0.51 as against world average of 1.80, USA: 7.74, OECD:4.7, Japan:4.13 and China:1.44. At current economic growth rate of 8% and with the estimated energy elasticity of 0.80, the energy demand is estimated to increase by about 6.4% per year.


  • Current Production: Domestic production of crude oil fell from 34.11 MT in 2007-08 to from 33.50 MT in 2008-09. The production of natural gas went up to 32.84 billion cubic metres tonnes (BCM) in 2008-09, from 32.40 BCM in 2007-08.
  • India is ranked fifth largest country in the world in terms of refining capacity, with a share of 3 per cent of the global capacity. Today there are 19 refineries in the country, 17 in the public sector and two in the private sector, with an installed capacity of 156.10 Million MT per annum (MTPA) in 2007-08.
  • Refinery production in terms of crude throughput increased to 160.77 MT in 2008-09 as compared to 156.10 MT in 2007-08.
  • The projected production of crude oil during the 11th Five-Year Plan (2007-2012) is 206.76 MMT, while that of natural gas is 255.27 BCM.
  • The refining capacity in the country has grown, from 62.2 MMT as of April 1998 to 149 MMT as of April 2007. It is expected to go up to 235 MMT by 2012. Based on demand estimates, this implies a surplus capacity of 86 MMT by 2011-12 and a potential for exports from the country (Source: PPAC).
  Item Unit 2007-08
1. Reserves (Balance recoverable)
i) Crude Oil
ii) Natural Gas

Million MT
Billion Cub. Metres.

725
1055
2. Consumption:
i) Crude Oil (in terms of refinery crude throughput)
ii) Petroleum Products (excl. RBF)

Million MT
Million MT

156.1
118.83
3. Production
i) Crude Oil
ii) Petroleum products
iii) LPF from natural gas

Million MT
Million MT
Million MT

34.117
144..93
2.06
4.  (i) Gross Imports: Total  
a) Qty: Crude Oil
b) Petroleum products
Million MT
Million MT
Million MT
144.39
121.67
22.72
  (ii) Exports  Qty:    Petroleum products Million MT 39.33
5. India’s Total Exports Rs. billion 6254.71
6. Pol. imports as % of India’s total exports
i) Gross imports
ii) Net imports

%
%

55.8
38.6
7 Natural Gas
i) Gross Production
ii) Utilisation

Billion Cub. Metres
Billion Cub. Metres

32.274
34.328
  • Production of gas from Reliance Industries' eastern offshore KG D-6 fields, with a life of 11 years, started on April 1, 2009 and will increase to 80 million standard cubic metres per day (MSCMD) by the end of the year. Production will help save US$ 9 billion in oil import.
  • Cairn India is anticipating over 1.3 million tonnes of crude oil production from the Ravva field in the Krishna Godavari basin during the current financial year. Moreover, according to a Goldman Sachs report, production from Cairn India's prolific Rajasthan oil fields will bring down India's oil import bill by US$ 6.8 billion.
The Market
  • India's domestic demand for oil and gas is on the rise. As per the Ministry of Petroleum, demand for oil and gas is likely to increase from 176.40 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mmtoe) in 2007-08 to 233.58 mmtoe in 2011-12.



    Demand and Production of Crude Oil
    (2001-02 to 2024-25)
    Year Crude Oil (MMT)
      Demand Supply Gap
    2001-02 99.70 32.03 67.67
    2002-03 114.30 33.05 81.25
    2005-06 140.00 33.98 106.02
    2011-12 199.60 33.47 166.13
    2024-25 376.50 61.4 315.1
  • Gas demand in India is dominated by the power and fertilizer sectors which account for 66 per cent of the current consumption. In 2006, the total gas demand was around 152 MSCMD. The gas demand is expected to increase to 320 MSCMD, according to a report by Ernst & Young. Significantly, the share of natural gas in the overall fuel mix is expected to increase from 8 per cent in 2006 to 20 per cent by 2025.



    Demand and Production of Natural Gas
    (2001-02 to 2024-25)
    Year Natural Gas (MMSCMD)
      Demand Supply Gap
    2001-02 151.00 81.40 69.60
    2006-07 231.00 94.84 136.16
    2011-12 313.00 158.05 154.95
    2024-25 391.00 170.00 221.00
  • Destination India as refining hub: India is set to emerge as a refining hub even as global refining markets have tightened with the closure of small refineries in North America and Europe mainly due to challenges in investing in cleaner fuels and high compliance costs. In addition, permits for Greenfield refineries are hard to obtain in these countries due to environmental concerns. Therefore, capacity addition is primarily coming from emerging economies like India, China and some Middle Eastern countries.
  • By 2010, the expected worldwide deficit in refining capacity will be around 112 MTPA, because of the shutting down of some of the smaller refineries in developed economies. Smaller refineries in North America and Europe are finding it uneconomical to invest in cleaner fuels because of high compliance cost and cleaner fuel norms. In Japan and Australia, oil majors have rationalised their refining assets because they are becoming uneconomical to operate.
  • According to a recent CII-KPMG report India's energy sector will provide investment avenues worth US$ 120 billion-US$ 150 billion over the next five years. According to the Investment Commission of India, the total opportunity in the oil and gas sector is expected to reach US$ 35 billion to US$ 40 billion by 2012.
  • Coal Based Methane (CBM) and Underground Coal Gasification Opportunities: With proven reserves of 765 MTOE and indicated reserves of between 1,260-2,340 MTOE, CBM is expected to be a large opportunity. CBM exploration has already been taken up seriously, with more than 26 blocks awarded so far and more to be taken up. Compression of CBM and marketing as CNG can be exploited in potential industries, as a substitute to conventional natural gas. A related exciting technology is that of Underground Coal Gasification (UGC), which is already being exploited in Russia, at a small level. Given India's large coal reserve, the UGC technology could potentially produce volumes of multiples of India's free natural gas reserve. For example, Gujarat's coal reserves could produce as much as 70 times of ONGC's current free gas reserves.
Why Tamil Nadu?
  • Tamil Nadu has at present 28 oil and Gas fields in Cauvery basin producing crude oil and natural gas. During 2007-08, Crude oil production in Cauvery basin was 353,000 MT and natural Gas: 1169 Million Cubic Metres. Further exploration is underway.
  • Tamil Nadu has 2 refineries belonging to CPCL, each one at Chennai (9.5 million MT) and Panagudi (Narimanam) at Nagapttinam (1.0 Million MT).
  • Nagarjuna Oil Corporation is currently setting up an oil refinery at Cuddalore with a capacity of 6.0 Million MT at an investment of Rs.4790 Crores which is expected to commence commercial production in 2011. This will augment the total refining capacity of Tamil Nadu to 16.50 Million MT.
  • Petroleum Chemicals and Petrochemicals Investment Region: Government of India announced a policy for promotion of Petroleum Chemicals and Petrochemicals Investment Regions (PCPIR) in May, 2007, with the objective of accelerating promotion of investment in the chemical / petrochemical sectors so as to make India a hub for both domestic and international markets taking advantage of global shift in demand and production for petrochemicals. The petroleum refinery project under implementation by Nagarjuna Oil Corporation, a joint venture of TIDCO, will be one of the anchor units in the proposed PCPIR. NOCL's refinery project will go on stream in 2011. A detailed proposal has been prepared by TIDCO for establishing the PCPIR along the coastal stretches in Cuddalore and Nagapattinam districts.
  • Abundant availability of skilled manpower in Chemical Engineering - Largest turn-out of skilled manpower in India.
  • Reliable and quality infrastructure availability.
  • Excellent Sea port Logistics: Tamil Nadu has a long coast line of 1000 kms with 3 major ports and 16 minor ports. Chennai has two modern ports in Chennai & Ennore and another in Tuticorin, providing Gateway for exports and imports. Chennai container terminal is the most efficient in India. Chennai Port has two modern container terminals. All the 3 ports have POL berths. Oil companies namely CPCL and Nagarjuna have dedicated Jetties.
Government Support
  • Attractive Package of Incentives depending on the size of Investment and employment as per Industrial Policy 2007.
  • Super-mega Policy - Government offers special incentives for projects with investments between Rs.1500 to 4000 Crores.
  • Land allotment in different Industrial parks and SEZs.
  • Infrastructure support in the form of power, water, connecting roads, drainage, etc.
  • Single window facilitation through Guidance Bureau.
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