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The key to sustaining India's growth rate during a global meltdown lies in developing India's infrastructure. Keeping this in mind, the government is targeting an investment of US$ 20.38 billion over the next two years in the infrastructure sector. The scheme aims to take up infrastructure projects under public-private partnership (PPP) with minimal private investment. The government has asked the Infrastructure Investment Finance Company Ltd (IIFCL) to put together a corpus of over US$ 8.15 billion for this purpose.

IIFCL plans to provide US$ 1.2 billion for infrastructure projects during 2009-10, which is nearly double the amount disbursed by it during 2008-09. The company had disbursed US$ 640.8 million for various projects during 2008-09.

This is in addition to the US$ 320 billion that the government plans to invest for the upgradation of ports, railroads, highways and airports over the next 15 years.

Further, the core sector growth is back on track. The index for six core industries-crude oil, petroleum refinery products, coal, electricity, cement and finished carbon steel-has turned in a growth of 2.9 percent in March 2009 over March last year.
The government has identified 276 projects entailing an investment of US$ 12 billion.

According to the Planning Commission, there is an investment opportunity of US$ 25 billion by 2011-12 in India's shipping and ports sectors, as the country seeks to double its ports capacity to 1,500 million tonnes.

Segment-wise, while the ports sector would provide a US$ 13.75 billion investment opportunity, shipping and inland waterways are likely to present a US$ 11.25 billion investment opportunity.
The government plans to attract private players through the PPP mode for the development of over 300 airports and airstrips. It would invest US$ 9 billion to modernise existing airports by 2010.The Civil Aviation Ministry plans to develop 35 Greenfield airports across India by 2010 with an investment of US$ 35 billion for the proposed airports.
The Indian Railways took up the most ambitious ever annual plan for fiscal 2008-09, entailing an enormous investment of US$ 7.91 billion, registering a 21 percent increase over the previous year. The plan includes a total budgetary support of US$ 1.66 billion including US$ 163.33 million to be provided from the Central Road Fund.
  • A total investment of US$ 5.6 billion has been planned for the two corridors, US$ 3.3 billion for the Western and US$ 2.3 billion for the Eastern, respectively.
  • Two new rail routes have been sanctioned by the Cabinet. These are the Western corridor between Dadri in Uttar Pradesh and the Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust in Navi Mumbai and an Eastern corridor connecting Dankuni (near Kolkata) to Ludhiana,Punjab for which construction will commence from 2010-11.
During 2007-08, US$ 1.86 billion had been provided for the national highways and for state roads. Of this amount, US$ 1.5 billion is for national highways and US$ 0.36 billion for state roads. An amount of US$ 0.04 billion has also been allocated during 2007-08 for the development of state roads.

According to a consultation paper by the Planning Commission, investment in the roads sector during the Eleventh Plan is projected at US$ 93.11 billion.

During the Eleventh Plan, the government aims to add power generation capacity of about 70,000 MW and provide electricity to all un-electrified hamlets and all rural households through the Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojna (RGGVY).
Telecom and IT
The Eleventh Plan envisages reaching a telecom subscriber base of 600 million, with 200 million rural telephone connections and attaining a broadband coverage of 20 million and 40 million Internet connections.
According to the Planning Commission consultation paper, US$ 494 billion of investment is proposed for the Eleventh Plan period (2007-12), which would increase the share of infrastructure investment to 9 percent of GDP from 5 percent in 2006-07.

Private investment is expected to account for over 65 percent of total investment in telecom, ports and airport sectors during the Eleventh Plan.

Moreover, the World Bank has said that it will lend US$ 14 billion to India by 2012 for infrastructure development.

IDFC Project Equity Co Ltd, set up by Infrastructure Development Finance Company (IDFC) as an infrastructure equity investment management company, is poised to invest about US$ 110 million in the near future to pick up stakes in two major infrastructure projects in the country.

Japan has agreed to provide loans to the tune of US$ 1.4 billion for four major infrastructure projects including the Delhi Metro.

According to Morgan Stanley, Reliance Infrastructure is likely to spend US$ 319.3 million in infrastructure projects by the end of FY10.
Investment in Rural Infrastructure
The government has started a special programme, Bharat Nirman, for the improvement of India's rural infrastructure. Out of the total projected investment of US$ 301.37 billion to be incurred by the center and the states in the Eleventh Plan, US$ 85.53 billion would be spent entirely towards improvement of rural infrastructure.
Government Initiatives
The Eleventh Plan targets a growth rate of 9 percent. Initiatives such as the National Highways Development Programme (NHDP), the Airport Financing Plan, and the National Maritime Development Programme and the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) are efforts in the same direction.

To enhance liquidity and check depreciation of the rupee, the Ministry of Finance has modified norms to permit companies in the mining, exploration and refineries sectors to bring in up to US$ 500 million in external commercial borrowing (ECB). Earlier, the limit was US$ 50 million. Further, the ministry has stated a five-fold increase in the figure that companies building roads, ports and other infrastructure projects are allowed to bring in from overseas.

Exchange rate used:1 USD = 50.53 INR (as on March 2009)

Ports - Sector structure/market size
The Indian coastline is dotted with 12 major ports and 187 minor ports. According to the Indian Ports Association, these major ports together handled a total of 519.24 million tonnes (MT) of cargo in 2007-08, an increase of 11.94 percent over 463.78 MT handled in 2006-07. Further, the total cargo traffic handled by these ports during April-December 2008-09 has been 391.80 MT as against 378.82 MT in the corresponding period last fiscal.

The share of non-major ports in cargo traffic has increased from less than 10 percent in 1990 to the current level of 26 percent.

India is also likely to emerge as a major destination for container operations. The container trade went up to 7.2 million TEUs by 2007 from 2.47 million TEUs in 2000.

The Indian shipbuilding industry comprising 27 shipyards-including eight public sector and 19 private sector shipyards-is on a roll driven by the booming maritime trade. According to an industry report, the shipbuilding sector has witnessed a 359 percent increase in the turnover of shipyards from US$ 216.60 million to US$ 778.90 million in the last five years. By 2012, it is likely to corner around 3 percent of the global share with an annual turnover of US$ 3.72 billion.
According to the Planning Commission there is an investment opportunity of US$ 25 billion by 2011-12 in India's shipping and ports sectors, as the country seeks to double its ports capacity to 1,500 MT. Segment-wise, while ports sector would provide a US$ 13.75 billion investment opportunity, shipping and inland waterways are likely to present a US$ 11.25 billion investment opportunity.
Major investments in the sector

  • The international container transhipment terminal (ICTT) project, being developed at Vallarpadam, Kochi, will be the largest single player among the container terminals planned in India and the first to operate in a special economic zone (SEZ) in India.
  • Tuticorin Port Trust (TPT) is planning to invest US$ 1.10 billion to create additional capacity and infrastructure projects through the public-private partnership (PPP) mode by 2012.
  • Key shipping companies, such as Shipping Corporation of India (SCI), Great Eastern (GE) and Essar, have already placed orders worth US$ 3.3 billion for 58 ships in Korea and China.
  • State-run Shipping Corp has planned capital expenditure to the tune of US$ 3 billion in the eleventh five-year-plan period and currently has an order pipeline for 29 new ships.
Government initiatives

  • The Indian government has set up the National Maritime Development Plan (NMDP) to improve facilities at India's 12 major ports and it plans an expenditure of around US$ 12.4 billion.
  • A further investment of over US$ 9.07 billion will be made for 111 Shipping Sector Projects by 2015.
  • The Ministry of Shipping is launching 10 major expansion projects in 2008-09 at an estimated investment of US$ 1.06 billion with 60 percent of investments allocated for the Chennai mega container terminal.
  • Hundred percent foreign direct investment (FDI) under the automatic route is permitted for port development projects.
  • Hundred percent income tax exemption is provided for a period of 10 years for port developmental projects.
  • Tariff Authority of Major Ports (TAMP) regulates the ceiling for tariffs charged by major ports/port operators (not applicable to minor ports).
  • Government has opened up all the areas of port operation for private sector participation.
  • The Indian government is considering a US$ 2 billion package to help local shipping firms finance new vessel acquisitions as global lenders tighten up their purse strings.
Looking ahead
Traffic at the ports has been growing at a brisk pace and therefore, increasing cargo handling capacities of the ports is crucial to India. To meet this demand, India's ports are likely to increase cargo handling capacity to 1,855 MT by 2012 from the present 758 MT, with an investment of about US$ 20.61 billion, as foreign trade expands. Private firms are likely to invest about 65 percent of this amount.

To achieve the projected traffic target of 615.70 MT to be handled at major ports by 2011-12, it is estimated that capacity of about 800.41 MT would be needed. Therefore an additional capacity of around 403 MT has to be built up by 2011-12, against the current capacity of 397 MT.

Though the Indian shipbuilding industry is still in a budding stage it is estimated to corner a share of about 3 percent with an annual turnover of US$ 3.71 billion by 2012.

Exchange rate used: 1 USD = 50.2877 INR

Power - Sector structure
As the Indian economy continues to surge ahead, its power sector has been expanding concurrently to support the growth rate. The demand for power is growing exponentially and the scope of growth of this sector is immense.

India's total installed capacity of electricity generation has expanded from 105,045.96 MW at the end of 2001–02 to 145,554.97 MW at the end of September 2008. In fact, India ranks sixth globally in terms of total electricity generation.

Source-wise, thermal power plants account for an overwhelming 64.6 percent of the total installed capacity, producing 92,892.64 MW. Hydel power plants come next with an installed capacity of 36,347.76 MW, accounting for 24.7 percent of the total installed electricity generation capacity.

Besides thermal and hydel power, renewable energy sources contribute 7.7 percent to the total power generation in the country producing 12,194.57 MW.

Nuclear energy makes up the balance 2.9 percent contributing 4,120 MW.
Growth Potential
According to a report by KPMG and CII, India's energy sector will require an investment of around US$ 120 billion-US$ 150 billion over the next five years.

The government has revised its target of power capacity addition to 90,000 MW in the 11th Five-Year-Plan (2007-12), up by 11,423 MW from the earlier estimate of 78,577 MW to sustain the growth momentum of the economy.

Further, according to the Planning Commission estimates, renewable energy (RE) projects worth US$ 16.50 billion, for the generation of 15,000 MW power, would come up in the 11th Plan.

Moreover, the government has earmarked a total capital subsidy of US$ 6.88 billion for providing electricity connections and for the distribution of infrastructure to rural households.
Nuclear Power Generation
Subsequent to the Indo-US nuclear deal and India getting clearance from the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), nuclear power generation is likely to provide an opportunity of US$ 10 billion in the next five years, according to a JP Morgan estimate. India will now also be partnering several countries for nuclear fuel technology projects.
  • As a part of the Eleventh Five-Year-Plan, Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) will be commencing work on 12 reactors. NPCIL will be developing a series of nuclear reactors with capacities between 1,000 MW to 1,650 MW at 5-6 sites along the country's coastline.
  • India will also be exploring export opportunities and is planning to set up nuclear power reactors abroad. Three Indian public sector companies-the NPCIL, BHEL and NTPC-will be setting up a company for the export of nuclear power reactors.
  • GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy has tied up with NPCIL and BHEL for building multiple GEH-designed nuclear reactors.
  • Sweden sees a market of around US$2 billion in India for back-end operations like nuclear waste management.
  • NTPC Ltd and NPCIL would jointly invest around US$ 3.09 billion in the next eight years to set up nuclear power plants in the country.
According to an ASSOCHAM study during January-June 2008, investment announcements totalling to US$ 40.84 billion were made in the power sector.

Reliance Power Transmission will invest nearly US$ 348.66 million in setting up a 1,500-km transmission line.

Hyderabad-based Greenko Group plans to invest about US$ 300 million in three years for setting up about 15 clean energy projects in the country.
Government Initiatives
The government has taken several proactive steps to open the sector for the private players and realise the full potential of the country in the power sector.

  • Introduction of the Electricity Act 2003 and the notification of the National Electricity and Tariff policies.
  • Constitution of Independent State Electricity Regulatory Commissions in the states.
  • Allowing the private sector to set up coal, gas or liquid-based thermal projects, hydel projects and wind or solar projects of any size.
  • Allowing foreign equity participation up to 100 percent in the power sector under the automatic route.
  • Providing income tax holiday for a block of 10 years in the first 15 years of operation and waiver of capital goods' import duties on mega power projects (above 1,000 MW generation capacity).
  • The government has also taken up some ambitious programmes like the Ultra Mega Power Projects (UMPP), Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidhyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY), Accelerated Rural Electrification Programme and the goal of Power for All by 2012 among others to rapidly increase the installed capacity.
Looking ahead
A recent study by consultancy major McKinsey estimates India's power demand to increase from the present 120 gigawatt (GW) to 315 GW–335 GW by 2017, if India continues to grow at an average of 8 percent over the next 10 years. This would require a five- to ten-fold rise in power production, entailing investments worth US$ 600 billion over the next ten years.

To feed its rapidly growing economy, India is planning to get an additional 60,000 MW of electricity from various hydro-power projects by the end of 2025.

The government targets providing electricity for all by 2012. Under the Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojna, the Ministry of Power plans to electrify 120,000 villages in the current Five Year Plan (2007–12).

Exchange rate used:
1 USD = 48.57 INR (as on February 2009)
1 USD = 51.63 INR (as on May 2009)

Roads - Sector Structure/Market Size
India has the world's second largest road network, aggregating over 3.34 million kilometers (km).

According to the Planning Commission, the road freight industry will be growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 9.9 percent from 2007-08 to 2007-12. A target of 1,231 billion tonne km (BTK) has been put on road freight volumes for 2011-12.

According to Crisil Research estimates, Indian roadways is among the eight infrastructure sectors expected to draw more than US$ 337.49 billion investment in India between 2007-12. The report further forecasts that during the specified period, Indian roadways is likely to grow at an amazing 100 percent.
Growth Potential
The Indian government has launched the ambitious National Highway Development Programme (NHDP) involving a total investment of US$ 54.1 billion up to 2012.

In 2008-09 itself, the NHAI has infused US$ 4 billion in the NHDP.

It has also started the Bharat Nirman Programme that aims to cover every village having a population of over 1,000 or over 500 in hilly and tribal areas, with all-weather roads.

For the roads and bridges sector, the Eleventh Five Year Plan envisages a total investment of approximately US$ 78.5 billion over the five-year period starting from 2007-08.

As part of a larger plan to improve the country's infrastructure, the government has given the nod to 10 road projects which will be built in public-private partnership at an estimated cost of US$ 2.48 billion. The projects are aimed at four-laning of national highways in eight states.

Under the Special Accelerated Road Development Programme in the North East (SARDP-NE), the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) has agreed to the modifications to Phase A of the SARDP-NE, to facilitate road linkage to Sittwe port of Myanmar, with an investment of US$ 1.24 billion.
Private Sector Investments

  • Reliance Energy has three contracts to four-lane 400 km of highway and is already working on four-laning five national highway projects in Tamil Nadu, covering 400 km and at an estimated cost of over US$ 762.42 million.
  • L&T inter-state Road Corridor Limited is executing the four-laning of the 76-km highway between Palanpur and Swaroopgunj on the East-West Corridor.
  • Lanco Infratech has the contract to four-lane two highways in Karnataka at an estimated cost of US$ 247.41 million.
  • Jaiprakash Associates Ltd (JAL) is implementing the Taj Expressway project, which envisages a six-laned 165 km stretch connecting Greater Noida to Agra at a cost of US$ 554.93 million.
  • KNR Constructions Ltd has bagged a US$ 114.4 million order to execute an eight-lane expressway for Hyderabad Growth Corridor Ltd (HGCL).
Public Private Partnership

Many road projects with public-private partnerships (PPP) are also on the anvil.

The Public-Private Partnership Appraisal Committee (PPPAC) gave the nod to infrastructure projects worth US$ 5.98 billion on November 2008, which included 21 highway projects to be taken up under NHDP Phase III and V. Since its foundation in January 2006, the PPPAC has granted approval to 87 projects, which includes 77 highway projects.

The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) has also given its approval for four-laning of National Highways in Kerela and Tamil Nadu. The projects, involving a cumulative cost of US$ 1.6 billion, will be executed under the PPP mode.
Government Initiatives

  • Allowing 100 percent FDI under the automatic route in all road development projects.
  • With incentives like 100 percent income tax exemption for a period of 10 years, the NHAI provides grants/viability gap funding for marginal projects, and formulation of model concession agreements among others.
  • Investors in identified highway projects permitted to recover investment by way of collection of tolls for specified sections and periods.
  • The government has also announced an increase in the overseas borrowing amount of infrastructure sectors, to US$ 500 million from US$ 100 million.
Looking Ahead

According to a consultation paper by the Planning Commission, investment in the roads sector during the Eleventh Plan is projected at US$ 93.11 billion. According to a KPMG report, investments of the order of US$ 500 billion are expected to take place in the coming years for developing roads and infrastructure in India.

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is extending a US$ 420 million loan to the Indian state of Bihar for the upgradation and expansion of the state highway network, over a period of 25 years.

Further, the roads of Delhi will be getting a facelift, keeping the 2010 Commonwealth Games in mind. The Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) plans to spend a massive US$ 1.24 billion for the year 2009-2010 for upgrading the city's roads and infrastructure.

Exchange rate used:
1 USD = 50.4 INR (as on February 2009)
1 USD = 49.9128 INR (as on April 2009)
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