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India at a Glance 2012
Introduction :
India has made a mark for itself on the global canvas owing to its vast young population, burgeoning investment opportunities and intensifying acceptance of the international culture. The world's largest democracy and second most populous country, India is militarily strong and economically sound.

The vast and diverse Indian sub-continent - from the mountainous Afghan frontier to the jungles of Burma - remained under the foreign rule from the early 1800s until the termination of the British Raj in 1947, and the country has not looked back since then.

India is enjoying its position as a strategic international trade partner. While the country is anticipated to become the third largest auto industry by volumes after China and the US by 2015, it is predicted that Indian banking sector would be the world's third largest in asset size by 2025. Similarly, India's consumer market is expected to grow two-and-a-half times by 2025, from current Rs 43 trillion (US$ 796.88 billion) to Rs 110 trillion (US$ 2.04 trillion). Thus, such humongous forecasts about the South-Asian country clearly reflect the fact that India is a major investment destination - for present as well as for the future.
Location: India lies to the north of the equator in Southern Asia

Latitude: 8 4' to 37 6' north

Longitude: 68 7' to 97 25' east

Neighbouring Countries: Pakistan and Afghanistan share political borders with India on the West while Bangladesh and Myanmar stand adjacent on the Eastern borders. The northern boundary comprises the Sinkiang province of China, Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan. Sri Lanka is another neighbouring country which is separated by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.

Capital: New Delhi

Coastline: 7517 km, including the mainland, the coastlines of Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshwadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea.

Climate: Southern India majorly enjoys tropical climate but northern India experiences temperatures from sub-zero degrees to 50 degrees Celsius. Winters embrace northern India during December to February while springs blossom in March and April. Monsoons arrive in July and stay till September, followed by autumn in October and November.

Area: India measures 3, 214 km from north to south and 2, 933 km from east to west with a total land area of 3,287,263 sq km.

Natural Resources: Coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land.

Land: 2,973,190 sq km

Water: 314,070 sq km
Political System and Government:
The world's largest democracy implemented its Constitution in 1950 that provided for a parliamentary system of Government with a bicameral parliament and three independent branches: the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. The country has a federal structure with elected Governments in States.

Administrative Divisions: 28 States and 7 Union Territories

Constitution: The Constitution of India came into force on January 26, 1950

Executive Branch: The President of India is the Head of State, while the Prime Minister is the Head of the Government and runs office with the support of the Council of Ministers who form the Cabinet.

Legislative Branch: The Federal Legislature comprises of the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) forming both the Houses of the Parliament.

Judicial Branch: The Supreme Court of India is the apex body of the Indian legal system, followed by other High Courts and subordinate Courts.

Chief of State: President, Mr Pranab Mukherjee (since 25 July 2012)

Head of Government: Prime Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh (since 22 May 2004)
Demographic profile
Population: 12, 100, 000, 00 (Census 2011)

Population Growth Rate: 17.64 per cent (Census 2011)

Religions: Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism

Languages: Hindi, English and at least 16 other official languages

Literacy: Total population: 74.04 per cent (provisional data-2011 census)

Male: 82.14 per cent

Female: 65.46 per cent

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Life expectancy: 66.08 years (men), 68.33 years (women) (2012 est.)
Economic Profile
Indian Economy
Ratings agency Crisil has projected a growth rate of 5.5 per cent in gross domestic product (GDP) for 2012-13. Per capita income in real terms (at 2004-05 prices) is predicted to have increased by 6.5 per cent to Rs 35,917 (US$ 664.81) in 2010-11 compared to the previous fiscal's Rs 33,731 (US$ 624.35). At current prices, per capita income is estimated at Rs 54,835 (US$ 1, 014.76) in 2010-11, registering an increase of 17.9 per cent from Rs 46,492 (US$ 860.37) in 2009-10.

The index for industrial production (IIP) expanded by 0.1 per cent in July 2012 driven by growth in basic goods segment which rose 1.5 per cent and the consumer durables sector, which grew by 1.4 per cent.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Composition by Sector (2010 estimate)
  • Services: 55.2 per cent
  • Industry: 26.3 per cent
  • Agriculture: 18.5 per cent
  • Forex Reserves: US$ 292 billion as on September 7, 2012
  • Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) at current prices: is estimated at Rs 6, 84, 893 crore (US$ 126.73 billion) in the first quarter of 2012-13 as against Rs 6, 36, 371 crore (US$ 117.75 billion) in first quarter of 2011-12
  • Value of Exports: Stood at US$ 22.3 billion in August 2012, according to data released by the commerce ministry.
  • Export Partners:US, Germany, UAE, China, Japan, Thailand, Indonesia and European Union. India is also tapping newer markets in Africa and Latin America.
  • Currency (code):Indian rupee (INR)
  • Exchange Rates:Indian rupees per US dollar - 1 USD = 53.9648 INR (September 17, 2012)
  • Fiscal Year:1 April - 31 March
  • Cumulative FDI equity Inflows :US$ 260, 913 million (April 2000 to June 2012)
  • Share of Top Investing Countries FDI Equity Inflows:Mauritius, Singapore, UK, Japan, USA, Netherlands and Cyprus (as on June 2012)
  • Major Sectors Attracting Highest FDI Equity Inflows:Services Sector, Construction Activities, Telecommunications, Computer Software & Hardware, Drugs and Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals (as on June 2012)
  • Transportation in India
Operational Airports:85

International Airports: Ahmedabad, Amritsar, Bengaluru, Chennai, Goa, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Kochi, Kolkata, Mumbai, New Delhi, Thiruvananthapuram

Railways: The Indian Railways network is spread over some 64,000 km, with 12,000 passenger and 7,000 freight trains each day from 7,083 stations plying 23 million travellers and 2.65 million tonnes of goods daily.

Roadways: India's road network of 4.1 million km is the second largest in the world. With the number of vehicles growing at an average annual pace of 10.16 per cent, Indian roads carry about 65 per cent of freight and 80 per cent of passenger traffic.

Waterways: 14, 500 km

Major Ports of Entry: Chennai, Ennore, Haldia, Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT), Kolkata, Kandla, Kochi, Mormugao, Mumbai, New Mangalore, Paradip, Tuticorin and Vishakhapatnam.
Trade and External Sector
India has always been an investor-friendly and liberal nation. Investors across the globe have retained faith in the resilience of the Indian economy and hence have been increasing their holdings in Indian companies. The country has aligned itself well with global patterns to accept foreign institutional investments (FIIs), capital inflows and foreign direct investments (FDI) with open arms. The Government also, has always played vital role in formulating external policies and foreign trade regulations and hence, has stayed an active member on the global stage when it comes to bilateral talks and strategic alliances.

India enjoys numerous well-cemented trade relations across the developed world including the US and the UK. While UAE appears to be the most significant trading partner, relations with Saudi Arabia are also developing in terms of volume and priority. Within Asia, India has bonded well with Malaysia, Vietnam and Indonesia and trade volume with these countries is anticipated to grow at around 11 per cent over the next five years.
Capital Inflows
According to the Reserve Bank of India (RBI)'s weekly statistical supplement, India's foreign exchange reserves or forex reserves stood at US$ 287.62 billion for the week ended July 6, 2012. Foreign currency assets (FCAs), the biggest component of the forex reserves, aggregated to US$ 254.63 billion and the value of gold reserves stood at US$ 25.76 billion for the week. The value of special drawing rights (SDRs) was calculated at US$ 4.35 billion, and India's reserves with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) came out to be US$ 2.87 billion.
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
India received FDI worth US$ 1.33 billion in May 2012 while cumulative inflows for April-May 2012-13 stood at US$ 3.18 billion.

The sectors which attracted huge FDI inflows during the 2-month period of 2012-13 are: services (US$ 754 million), pharmaceuticals (US$ 401 million), metallurgical industries (US$ 314 million), construction (US$ 181 million), housing and real estate (US$ 132 million) and power (US$ 100 million).

Mauritius infused highest inflows worth US$ 1.13 billion, followed by Netherlands (US$ 409 million), the UK (US$ 378 million), Singapore (US$ 231 million), Japan (US$ 132 million) and Cyprus (US$ 177 million).

The Government has recently cleared 14 FDI proposals worth Rs 1,584.11 crore (US$ 281.64 million) based on the recommendations of Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB).
Foreign Institutional Investments (FIIs)
FIIs have displayed intense optimism in India's growth prospects as the country remained relatively insulated from the global economic meltdown; thanks to strong domestic consumption, focus on infrastructure development and robust banking system.

According to a UN report, India is the third most favoured destination for investment after China and the US for major global companies. The report further anticipates that foreign investments in India could increase by more than 20 per cent in 2012-13.

  • According to data released by capital market regulator, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), total FII investment in 2012 (till July 13, 2012) stood at US$ 9.82 billion wherein US$ 1.3 billion were infused during the first two weeks of July itself.
  • During July 3-13, 2012 FIIs were gross buyers of shares worth Rs 24,626 crore (US$ 4.48 billion), while they sold equities amounting to Rs 17,270 crore (US$ 3.07 billion), translating into a net investment of US$ 1.3 billion.
  • The foreign fund houses also infused US$ 309 million in the debt market in July 2012 taking the overall net investments by FIIs into debt markets to US$ 4.32 billion in 2012 (till July).
  • As on July 13, the number of registered FIIs in the country stood at 1,754 while the total number of sub-accounts was 6,358.
India's exports stood at US$ 25.07 billion in June 2012 and the Government has set a target to achieve 20 per cent growth in exports in the fiscal 2012-13. Exports from India recorded an expansion of 20.94 per cent to US$ 303.71 billion in the financial year ended March 31, 2012, surpassing the Government's target of US$ 300 billion. HSBC has recently released its Global Connections report which states that over next five years, India will be the fastest growing exporter (growth annualised at 5 per cent) in Asia. The forecast aligns with current situation wherein traditionally export-driven emerging markets are becoming global hubs and strategic facilitators for international economic growth.
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